PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AS A TOOL FOR ACHIEVING HIGHER EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION
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1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
One of the universals of organizations is objectives or goals. Every organization is characterized with the following features: people and structure and all this are geared towards the attainment of its stated goals. Chis Argyris defines an organization as “Intricate human strategies designed to achieve certain objectives” also, Blake and Mouton identified seven (7) characteristics of an organization. These are purpose, structure, financial resources, know-how, human interaction organizational culture and result.
However, the wheel of the organization is therefore steered towards achieving certain goals that is every worker is involved and mobilized in the process of goals attainment. ‘Human resources’ this constitute the ultimate dignity of an organization, after all, it is the interactions of people with natural resources that institute the development process, the people according to Gant “are the human resources for the supply of physical labour, technical and professional skills, which are germane to effective and efficient planning and implementation of developmental policies, programme, projects and daily activities.
The various definitions however, concur on one basic thing, and that is, the need for human resources and its development for the development of personnel in any enterprises, whether public or private, is one of the essential functions of the human resources manager. This is because, of all resources available to the organization the human resources are perhaps, the most vital in its usage, so that without them, all the other form of innovation such as technological innovation computers would just lie there unattended to, due to the unavailability of skills man power to manipulate them. This required managerial functions such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting or reviewing, and budgeting (POSDCORB).
In large and complex organization, the managerial functions become very cumbersome and difficult. This is so because; the manager finds it almost impossible to have direct contact with every individual worker let alone knowing what the worker does. To achieve this fact, the manager, who performs the functions of planning, organizing, controlling, directing, etc, as identified by Knootz and O. dinnel, must make use of tools that would aid him in sanitizing and appraising the human resources in that organization, that tool has been identified as “Performance Appraisal”.
Performance Appraisal, According to Ngu (1994) “is usually referred to as integrated approach to management for more productivity or efficiency in organization”. Through this technique, activities of individual, unit, section, division, department or a workers are monitored, measured and possibly with the aim of according reward or some form of motivation. This very tool of management is a form of communication, that is, it transfers information, ideas and values from one person to another; employer and vice-versa.
This information system (Performance Appraisal) aids management to see the loop-holes or gaps in the employees performance and this give them the enlightenment on how to introduces training of this man power to aid the development process. Therefore the training and development of these categories of people should be undertaken on a continuous basis in order to provide new skills in the dynamic sector.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Staff training and development is very necessary to any organization be it private or public, such training has benefited most organization in achieving their goal, which is the aim of the study. More so, it is suppose to make the Agency more efficient especially on how to motivate their personnel to increase their performance.
Though the Agency is among the oldest steel exploration industry in the steel sector, most of their customers observed that their mode of operation is slow. For example to drill a borehole it takes the Agency more time frame compare to their counterpart in the drilling industry. It was observed also that most of their workers are not really expose to new technique or modern operating system that will enhance efficient and effective modern training of staff to give new technological development. The Agency does not really have the flare of employing young and capable staff with sound knowledge that could help it to improve its operation.
Dickerman (1974) noted that to improved personal performance, the individual himself had to be motivated. He must see that the caring management attitudes are there, that he can contribute his experiences, that the environment suits him and that the results encourage, but involvement through the devolution of responsibility is the major force. Training must be based on the specific needs of both the organization and in individual.
This situation made it pertinent to raise the following statement of problems:
1. There were no measures put in place to evaluate trained staff
2. Inefficient control mechanism, policies and procedure of Performance Appraisal
3. There are no any strong effects of training and development on staff of NSRMEA’s performance?
4. There are no strong measures to identify deficiencies and practice within the organization which adversely affect the personal performance of individual or the successful operation of departments.
5. No room for individual to develop and implement their own solutions to problems and deal with constrains which restrict their personal contribution.
Despite this inherent problems, the NSRMEA has done its best to see that training and development remains a vital policy and also takes its course because the important of training and development cannot be over emphasize as to motivate staff to perform effectively to achieve the organizational goals and objectives. But the management finds it almost impossible to have direct contact with every individual worker let alone knowing what the worker does. To achieve this fact, the management, who performs the functions of planning, organizing, controlling, directing, etc, as identified by Knootz and O. dinnel, must make use of tools that would aid him in sanitizing and appraising the human resources in that organization, that tool has been identified as “Performance Appraisal”.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims at analyzing the impact of performance appraisal as a tool for higher efficiency and productivity in National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency, Kaduna and. The research work would therefore be geared towards the achievement of the following:
1. How performance appraisal affects the attainment of organizational goal.
2. Making NSRMEA, Kaduna sees the urgency and need for performance appraisal in the development of their human resources.
3. The Various obstacle hindering the effective and efficient application of performance appraisal in NSRMEA, Kaduna
4. Also, to examine the reaction of the staff towards performance appraisal.
5. Finally making suggestion on how to improve the performance of the staff of NSRMEA, Kaduna.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The hypothesis which this study seeks to test is as follows:
Ho – Performance appraisal does not enhance the attainment of higher efficiency and productivity in NSRMEA, Kaduna.
Hi – Performance appraisal enhances the attainment of higher efficiency and productivity in NSRMEA, Kaduna.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of benefit to National Steel Council, Kaduna. That the urgency and need for performance appraisal will be appreciated in the area of development of their human resources. And also, just as communication is bedrock in the achievement of organizational goals, the study will served as another major tool (a guide) in aiding management in its functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting or reviewing, and budgeting (POSDCORB) in order to achieve the organizational goals.
More so, the study will be of benefit to the staff of NSRMEA, Kaduna as a motivational factor. Because the staff will be rest assured that they can only be promoted, placed, paid, commended etc. in accordance with their work done, target achieved, due process etc.
Finally, it is a contribution to the achievement and development of knowledge, as a secondary source of data and a reference material to other organizations, researches etc.
1.6 SCOPE and LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency, Kaduna as the primary source of data for the topic, while the secondary data are materials from textbooks, journals, periodicals, internet materials, prospects etc. It is to be noted that this study is greatly faced with shortcomings by the poor management of information on performance appraisal activity in NSRMEA, Kaduna. However, other inability factors to the research work include:
1. Time constrain: the time provide for the work execution of the study is rather too short for a thorough and detailed research on the topic. This is because NSRMEA, Kaduna has Six (6) other branches (Bases/Campsites) that are not situated in Kaduna.
2. Lack of maximum cooperation by respondent: some of the respondents who are in position to give maximum relevant information refused doing so. While some did not give full information believing that such information is secret to them and should not be disclosed.
3. late returning of questionnaire: some of the respondents did not return the questionnaire given to them and some returned theirs very late.
4. Finance: it was difficult for me to cover all the Agency’s Bases/Campsites due to financial constraints.
1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NATIONAL STEEL RAW MATERILAS EXPLORATION AGENCY, KADUNA
National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency came into existences as the Exploration and Mining Division of the defunct Nigerian Steel Development Authority (NSDA), which was established by Decree 19 of 1971. It later became a corporate body through the enactment of decree 49 of 1992 with mandate amongst others to carry out the exploration of steel raw materials in all parts of Nigeria and elsewhere for the iron and steel industry, and to establish and execute a steel raw material base for the Country.
The essential ingredient of the organogram is the emphasis on specialization on the major mineral raw material requirements of the iron and steel industry i.e. iron and other metal alloys, coal, limestone, clay and other industrial minerals that perform the roles of fluxes, refractory and foundry raw materials. The Agency which is headed by the Director General/Chief Executives has five (5) departments and staff strength of two hundred and sixteen (216). These five departments are headed by Directors.
1.71THE AGENCY’S FUNCTIONS
The Decree No. 49 of 1992 mandates the Agency to carry out the following functions:
Ú to carry out the exploration of steel raw materials in all parts of Nigeria and elsewhere for the iron and steel industry;
Ú to establish and execute a steel raw material base, including mineral resources management, monitoring, resource utilization studies and inventory in relation to the iron and steel industry;
Ú to carry out detailed geological, geophysical and geochemical investigations, including analytical and laboratory works, cadastral surveys, photo-geological and other interpretations, core drilling and well logging, geo-statistics and mineral reserves calculations, estimations and evaluations as may be required for the exploration of steel raw materials;
Ú to carry out geological investigations of host rocks and overburdens, including geochemical, stratigraphic, mineralogic and petrography studies and field spot-tests of rock and mineral samples for pilot and industrial scale studies in relation to the iron and steel industry;
Ú to carry out geotechnical studies of deposits under investigation, slope and rock stability studies, rock mechanics and soil tests as parameters requisite for mining of steel raw materials;
Ú to ascertain the quality and quantity of steel raw materials and their suitability for their respective industrial uses in the iron and steel industry;
Ú to carry out hydro-geological investigations, including geophysical studies for water well drilling and development, bailing and pumping tests, determination of aquifer characteristics, investigation of underground water supply for domestic and industrial purposes as may be required for the iron and steel industry;
Ú to carry out such ground and underground exploratory workings as may be necessary for detailed evaluation of mineral raw materials for the iron and steel industry;
Ú To undertake detailed and test programmes on steel raw materials including metallurgical grade coking coal (in-seam exploration) aimed at identifying the characteristics and advising on the current knowledge of the mineral contents and their most economic and viable exploration modes.
Ú to liaise, collaborate and enter into ventures with other institutions whose functions are related to those of the Agency, whether in Nigeria or elsewhere in relation to the exploration and evaluation of steel raw materials for the iron steel industry;
Ú to carry out any other services with respect to matters relating to mineral exploration for the iron and steel industry;
Ú To establish, organize, run, operate, conduct and participate in such trainings, courses, lectures, seminars, conferences.
1.72ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE DEPARTMENT
The Department, which is made up of General Administration/Human Resources Management and Finance & Supplies Division is responsible for the administration of personnel and finances of the Agency including appointments, capacity building, recurrent and capital expenditures management. The activities of this department are targeted at effective acquisition, utilization and maintenance of the Agency’s human and materials resources aimed at satisfying and accomplishing its goals.
1.73IRON ORE AND FERRO ALLOYS DEPARTMENT
To meet the 8 million tones of iron ore annual requirement of Ajaokuta and Delta Steel Plants (when fully operational) and being one of the primary inputs in the Steel making process, this department which is manned by 20 geoscientists is saddled with the task of exploring and evaluating all the iron ore occurrences in Nigeria and possibly beyond. Attention is focused on the Precambrian banded (metasedimentary) iron ores formation and the Cretaceous Sedimentary Oolitic/pisolitic iron ores.
Apart from iron ores, the department is also carrying out prospecting and exploration for ferroalloy materials including chromites, manganese, wolframite (Tungsten), molybdenum, tantalite, rutile/ilmenite (Titanium) along others.
1.74COAL AND INDUSTRIAL MINERALS DEPARTMENT
The Coal and Industrial Minerals Department is manned by 25 experienced Geologists made up of specialists in various fields of geology including Industrial Mineralogy and Exploration geology and operating from Exploration field bases located in Bauchi, Obi/Lafia (Nasarawa State), Owerri (Imo State) and Akure (Ondo State).
The primary function of the Department is the exploration for Coking Coal, Refractory materials (clay, magnesite, bauxite, and kyanite-sillimanite), Fluxes (limestone/Marble, dolomite, and fluorspar) and Foundry materials (silica sand, quartzite, zircon sand, graphite, talc).
Apart from coking coal, the department also offers services in exploration for other coal types for generation of Thermal energy for kilns in cement industry, for coal-fired generating plants and coal briquettes for domestic use. The department has vast experience on carbonaceous materials like graphite for refractory and foundry industries.
The Coal and Industrial Minerals Department renders professional services on other industrial minerals not directly related to steel, and these include gypsum, diatomite, barites, mica, feldspar, phosphate, trona and precious/semi precious stones.
1.75GEOLOGICAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT
This department is responsible for all the geological services rendered by the Agency. These services include Cadastral Survey/Geographic Information System (GIS), Geophysical Survey, Engineering Geological Investigation, Hydrogeological Investigation, and various Laboratory services (Geochemical and Geotechnical). Iron/Ferro Alloys and Coal/Industrial Minerals Departments carryout their functions by effectively using the services of Geological Services Department. The Department is manned by Geoscientists of wide range specialization including Geophysicists, Surveyor Hydro-geologists, Engineering Geologists, Analytical chemists, and Mineral processing Engineers.
1.76 ENGINEERING SERVICES DEPARTMENT
The main thrust of the Agency is towards exploration, making it to acquire expensive machinery/equipment for bush clearing, road making, transportation, drilling, mobile service station, water delivery, electricity generation, pressurized air delivery etc. The Department is therefore responsible for operations/maintenance of these machinery/equipment and infrastructure of the Agency. The Department handles all drilling programs including Core Drilling and Water Borehole drilling of which it has established a substantial reputation for drilling expertise. The department is responsible for mine design and development using data generated through exploration. It is manned by formidable and dedicated engineers and technologists specializing in various fields of engineering, including mechanical, electrical, electronic, mining and drilling.
Iron Ores Division
DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS
This is an abbreviation of “National Steel Raw Materials Exploration Agency, Kaduna.
This is used in the research to refer to the employees or workers of an organization.
“Evaluation” a judgment or opinion of something or somebody, especially one that assesses effectiveness or usefulness
manner of functioning: the manner in which something or somebody functions, operates, or behaves, or
working effectiveness: the way in which somebody does a job, judged by its effectiveness
competence: the ability to do something well or achieve a desired result without wasted energy or effort or
the degree to which something is done well or without wasted energy
This is refers to as a process of which employees learn skills, knowledge, abilities or attitude to further organizational goals. It is a process for equipping the employee with specific skills.
Is the process of assisting employees attaining a level of performance and quality of personal and social behavior that best meet their personal and organizational objectives.
Is refers to as the inner most force that make people to do certain thing to satisfy certain need. It is an important tool that every management used to achieve organizational goals.
A. K. Ubeku (1984): Personnel Management in Nigeria: Principles and Practice, Macmillan Publishing Company, London.