HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR MINIMIZING INDUSTRIAL CONFLICT(A STUDY OF NIGERIA PORT AUTHORITY CALABAR)
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This study was undertaken to investigate Human Resource management as a tool for minimizing industrial conflict with particular reference to Nigeria Port Authority Calabar. The sampling technique was simple random to represent the entire population of 50. In an attempt to achieve this objective, research questions were formulated and simple questionnaire were given. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted to ascertain its relevance to the subject matter. Based on findings re commendations were made to proffer remedies to the employees and employers of the organization.
Human relations be it between children and parents, husband and wife, master and servant or employers and employees, no matter how cordial sometimes produce conflict. Even conflict can occur within oneself. The relations between employers and employees sometimes produce grievance and disputes which can be called industrial conflicts. This is the type of conflict that interest most scholars and it is what this research works seeks.
Conflict is an essential aspect of human life. Employers need employees and vice-versa yet they conflict. This encompasses conflict between individuals, groups and departments between staff and line and between different plant within the same company and between different companies. For managers, conflict may be a problem to be solved and a consultant might be paid to find a solution, for the researcher conflict may appear to be the natural state of organization and it may be more interesting to study why peace has broken.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In a business organization, there are a number of factor that contribute to the success of any organization these factors are capital, equipment, human resource, etc all these factor are important but the most significant factors is the human factors. Since this is the factor that will put the other factors to work. It should be viewed by management as such by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organizational goals and objectives and eliminate industrial, conflict in and around the organization.
Human resource planning is aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization. It becomes imperative for management to plan properly in order to have a human resource based that is devoid of conflict. The term management encompasses an array of different functions undertaken to accomplish a task successfully, today the importance of management from an organization’s point of view has increased multi fold. It is only through effective management that firms are developing and executing their profits and provide the best of products and services. Management combines creative business, organizational analytical and other skills to produce effective goal oriented results. Some of the key function are organizing, communication, clearly controlling situations, motivating employees, adapting to change constantly innovating and thinking of new ideas building a good team and delivering result which are not just figure bound but results that also focus on overall growth and development.
Human Resources Management (HRM) is the management of an organizations workforce or human resources, assessment and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture and ensuring compliance with employment and labour laws (Drucker, 1993). HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th century, when researcher began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce. The function was initially dominated by transnational work, such as payroll and benefits administration but die to globalization company consolidation, technological advancement and further research, HRM now focuses on strategic initiative like mergers and acquisitions, talent management succession planning, industrial and labour relations, industrial conflict resolution and diversity and inclusion.
According to Harbison F. H.(2006), human being constitutes the ultimate basis of a nation’s wealth. This proposition applies to the organization which implies that with daily increase and complexities in the organizational activities and the problem of managing industrial conflict. Thus, the primary role of human resource management is to manage the human resource processes fairly, firmly and objectively such that there is a continual value addition to this organization. In doing this the HRM must bear in mind the need to comply with companies’ policies and procedures, nation’s labour laws and the International Labour Organization (ILO) conventions.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Not many organizations consider the importance for a well defined and sustainable ways of combating conflict in the organization in order to reduce function in the work place and to enhance smooth movement or functioning of the human factor of production. The Nigeria Port Authority is not left out in these trends of things. Internal and external conflict in the Port Authority has caused a lot of problems ranging from strike, redundancy, and low productivity and ineffectiveness as a result of incessant break out of conflict among workers in the Port Authority. Owing to the fact that there are no strategies, planning and policies put in place to checkmate the activities of workers in the work place. Also the work relationships that exist among employees of the Nigeria Port Authority is not cordial due to conflict which has created bad bloods, fear and undue pressure.
The Nigeria Port Authority is on the verge of crumbling, hence human resource management can be employed to solve these identified problems in the Nigeria Port Authority Calabar. It is in view of this that the research considers this topic: Human Resource Management as a tool for minimizing individual conflict with particular reference to Nigeria Port Authority.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are the employees of Nigeria Port Authority Calabar satisfied with the quality of work relationship?
- Are the employees of Nigeria Port Authority Calabar satisfied with the procedures of conflict resolution?
- Are there plans for conflict management?
- How is the working relationship between Nigeria Port Authority and other firms?
- Has conflict affected the productivity of the Nigeria Port Authority Calabar?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the human resource management (HRM) and industrial conflict resolution in the Nigeria Port Authority Calabar.
- To establish a relationship between human resource management and minimizing industrial conflict.
- To highlight the need for human resource management
- To access the impact of minimizing industrial conflict on the overall productivity of Nigeria Port Authority Calabar.
- To suggest ways of solving the identified problems.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The testable hypotheses of this research study are the following:
Ho: There is no direct relationship between human resource management and minimizing industrial conflict.
Hi: There is direct relationship between human resource management and minimizing industrial conflict.
Ho: Lack of adequate industrial conflict resolution is not directly responsible for low labour turnover.
Hi: Lack of adequate industrial conflict resolution is directly responsible for low labour turnover.
Ho: Human Resource Management does not ensure productivity
Hi: Human Resources Management ensures productivity.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Sea faring services constitutes the back one of a nation’s economy like Niger, no wonder it is one of the most active sector. It is upon this premise that government monitors the activities of the Port Authority and provides necessary infrastructures for optimum service delivery to the public. In-spite of all efforts geared towards improving the services of the Nigeria Port Authority; there are some doubts as to the quality of service rendered by the Port Authority to its customers in particular and nation in general. It is in light of this that the research through the work intends to look into factors militating against Nigeria Port Authority Calabar in achieving its set objectives by this the study will look into the human resource management and effective industrial conflict resolution in the Nigeria Port Authority and asses their suitability with the aim of developing conflict resolution strategy to enhance the workers relationship in the work environment. The importance of reducing conflict in the industry should not be over emphasized especially due to the fact that it will reduce the quality and standard of the industry thereby resulting in low productivity and service delivery. For the management of Nigeria Port Authority Calabar, the benefit of minimizing industrial conflict through human resource management is that it will boost good employee’s relationship in the work place which in turn will have bearing on the overall service delivery.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Nigeria Port Authority Calabar was selected for this study, ad the research work was also limited to the employees of the Nigeria Port Authority. The problems that the researcher encountered was that some officers were either too busy for interview or cleverly avoided certain questions for the fear that the information given might put their job in jeopardy. Those who respond to questions tends to make their answers to reflect what ought to be rather than what it is. This undoubtedly affected the quality and accuracy of information collected during the study. A lot of finance was also required in making this project a reality, thus, the researcher was faced with the problem of finance and time. This difficulty not withstanding the project was effectively carried out to meet the desired standard.
1.8 DEFINTION OF TERMS
- Human Resource: This is the manpower of a business concern, these include unskilled, supervisory and management staff of a company or firm.
- Planning: Setting objective and goals and deciding on the best way of achieving them.
- Empirical: Of people or method guided only by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.
- Human Resource Management: Is the process of managing the organizational workplace or human resources.
- Management: Management is the process of forming a strategic vision, setting objective, crafting a strategy and then implementing and executing the strategy.
- Conflict: Conflict is essentially a situation of disagreement between two parties over an issue. It stems from unresolved grievance of individual or group of workers against other individual or the management.
- Resolution: Is finding solutions to disagreement or grievances between individuals or groups.
- Industrial Conflict: Industrial conflict is the situation where dispute and disagreement arise between employees and employers over matters related to the working conditions.