ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY IN NIGERIA AND CHALLENGE OF CRUDE OIL THEFT
1.1 Background of the study
In an attempt to understand the meaning of the term integrity of the environment, this study should attempt to separate the sentence to allow it to arrive at a definition. While the expression environmental concerns with the environment; linked to the natural conditions in which humans, animals and plants live. The term integrity means righteousness, honesty, totality of purity, fullness; the intact state of anything. In view of the above meanings of the phrase, it follows that the environmental integrity is the maintenance of the pure state, the intact state of the natural conditions in which people, animals and plants live in all. human enterprises. The integrity of the environment has also been defined as the sustenance of important biophysical processes that support plant and animal life and that must continue without significant change. The goal is to ensure the continued health of the essential systems of nature’s life, including air, water and soil by protecting the resilience, diversity and purity of natural communities (ecosystems) in the world.
Strict sense, environmental integrity portrays an environment devoid of any form of pollution from all polluting sources, which are essentially the achievement of human activities in its quest for survival ranging from industrial pollution, domestic, etc. . and development can not exist without pollution and because this state is inaccessible, that is, humans can not wait for death. The concept of environmental integrity now means an effort by humans to maintain the sustainability of the environmental resources of the environment in all its aspects. activities through its conducts, applicability of its working tools and by regulations applied in order to improve all components of the environment and not to degrade them. Starting from the above definition of what the integrity of the environment means, the question is: what is the state of the environment in Nigeria? How is the integrity of the environment maintained in Nigeria? In its pursuit of economic development, Nigeria has turned to industrialization at independence. crude oil
The first decade (1960-1970) of Nigeria’s independence saw the government plan the growth of industries in order to contribute directly to economic growth and national development. In the 1970s, two of the most applauded goals of national development plans were: Increased self-sufficiency in the supply of industrial products and factors of production. Develop and support small and medium industries and their contribution to manufacturing.
In the new millennium, the focus is on privatization and commercialization, job creation and the eradication of poverty.
Overall, the government pursues its national economic development through the growth of industries through continuous research in science and technology, the development of new products, the quality of industrial goods and services, the ability to produce buildings to meet challenges of competition and increase the taste. As successive Nigerian governments have also established and invested in industries, industrial economic development has also assaulted and degraded the Nigerian environment. The government has focused on maximizing the use of natural resources for rapid economic development with little consideration for resource conservation and sustainability. The environmental and social consequences of the proposed projects have been ignored. Industrial activities are generally conducted in Nigeria. leads to the pollution of water resources, the destruction of fauna and flora, health risks and the deterioration of sanitary quality, air and noise pollution, as well as the destruction of traditional economic infrastructures.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since the discovery of oil in Oloibiri, a village in the Niger Delta by Shell British Petroleum in 1956, the Nigerian economy has not only benefited financially, but has also suffered the negative impact of oil activities on the territory. The Niger Delta region has 606 oil fields including 360 onshore and 246 offshore. The oil industry in Nigeria contributes a large part of the income of the Nigerian economy; However, it has also become a source of loss in the budget of the Nigerian economy. This is associated with oil spills from oil development, and a more recurrent and disturbing issue is the activities of oil thieves. It is in this context that the researcher intends to investigate the effects of environmental integrity and the theft of crude oil in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to investigate the impact of environmental integrity in Nigeria and the challenge of crude oil theft, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives:
i) To investigate the impact of environmental degradation on the growth of Nigeria economy
ii) To investigate the effect of oil theft on the growth of Nigerian economy
iii) To ascertain if there is any relationship between environmental degradation and crude oil theft in Nigeria
iv) To ascertain if there is any relationship between crude oil theft and economic growth in Nigeria
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses was formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study
H0: environmental degradation has no impact on the growth of Nigerian economy
H1: environmental degradation has impact on the growth of Nigerian economy
H02: there is no significant relationship between environmental degradation and crude oil theft in Nigeria.
H2: there is a significant relationship between environmental degradation and crude oil theft in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the federal ministry of environment and their respective state counterpart as the study seek to enumerate the dangers of environmental degradation and oil theft in Nigeria, the study will also be of importance to the respective oil exploration company, as the findings will point them to a direction of cutting their loss through effective corporate social responsibility to their host community. The study will also be of great importance to researchers who intends to embark on similar study as the study will serve as a reference point for further studies. The findings will also be useful to researcher, academia’s and the general public as the findings will add to the pool of literature already available on the subject matter
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers environmental integrity in Nigeria and challenges of crude oil theft. But in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study
a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The Environmental Integrity Project is a Washington, D.C.-based environmental nonprofit organization that advocates for more effective enforcement of environmental laws.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth’s surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels
Crude oil theft
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems; habitat destruction; the extinction of wildlife; and pollution.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study