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1.1 Background of the study
According to Ajikobi (2017), a top drug firm executive said Nigeria registers the most new cases of diabetes in the region and that 5 million people in the country are living with the disease. About three years ago South Africa and Ethiopia tended to have more diabetes than Nigeria. Now Nigeria has the highest incidence of diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa (Ajikobi, 2017).
In 2015, it was the 6th leading cause of death in lower and middle income countries. WHO notes that over the past decade, the prevalence of diabetes has risen faster in low and middle-income countries than in high-income ones. It estimates that in 2014, about 25 million people in sub-Saharan Africa were living with the disease, up from 4 million in 1980 (WHO, 2016)
Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by the body’s inability to produce required amounts of insulin – the hormone that regulates blood sugar – or to efficiently use the insulin it produces (WHO, 2016)
As stated by Vcelakova, Blatny, Halbhuber, Kolar&Neuwirth, (2013) there are 3 types of diabetes namely: Type 1, Type 2 and Gestational diabetes. However, they further maintained that Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a heterogeneous disorder associated with the destruction of pancreatic beta cells, with the resultant effect of absolute insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes on the other hand is characterized by resistance to insulin action and suboptimal insulin secretory response, while gestational diabetes is when a woman without diabetes, develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. The body uses glucose for energy. But too much glucose in the blood is not good for pregnant women or the baby (Vcelakov et al., 2013). Furthermore, Boitard, 2012) argued that the causes of diabetes range from autoimmune mediated destruction of beta cells and idiopathic destruction or failure of beta cells.