Home / PUBLIC HEALTH PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS / DETERMINANTS OF TOBACCO USE AND KNOWLEDGE OF ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

DETERMINANTS OF TOBACCO USE AND KNOWLEDGE OF ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

DETERMINANTS OF TOBACCO USE AND KNOWLEDGE OF ITS HEALTH IMPLICATIONS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CALABAR SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

Format: Ms Word Document| Pages: 87|Price: N 5,000| Chapters: 1-5

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Tobacco use is the leading cause of unpreventable death worldwide (WHO, 2013). Globally, each year, smoking kills nearly six million people and causes hundreds of billions of dollars of economic loss. Tobacco product contain the dried, processed leaves of tobacco plant Nicotiana rustica or Nicotiana tabacum, which is harmful to human health (Centre for Substance Abuse,{CSA})(2013).

Smoking costs over a lifetime for a man and for a woman have been reported as $220,000 and $106,000 respectively. Thus, the cost of cigarette is an economic burden, not only to society, but also to the individual smoker and his/her family (Wallace et al). The number of smokers worldwide has increased from 721 million in 1980 to 967 million in 2012 and the number of cigarettes smoked increased from 4.96 trillion to 6.25 trillion because of population growth (WHO, 2013). The Premium Times (14/02/2017) laments that Nigerians spend N89 billion on tobacco annually. Global Adult Tobacco Survey, GATS (2012) estimates that the bulk of Nigeria’s 4.5 million adult smokers are male. While 10% adult male in Nigeria consume tobacco, only 1.1% of women do.  The 4.5 million smokers exposes 27 million others to harmful second hand smoke (GATS, 2012).

Smoking adversely affects all body systems and can severely affect a smoker’s health (CDC, 2012).  Smoking causes coronary heart diseases, blood vessels constriction, and the nicotine therein stimulates adrenal epinephrine secretion, which increases blood pressure and heart rate, according to The National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA (2012). In addition, smoking is a leading cause of respiratory diseases such as emphysema, bronchitis, and chronic airway obstruction by damaging the airways and alveoli of the lungs (CDC, 2012). There is direct relationship between the number of years of smoking and cancer (Wallace et al). Tobacco users are at risk for several other types of cancers such as carcinoma of the upper respiratory tract, cervix, throat, larynx, mouth, pancreas, kidney, bladder and acute myeloid leukaemia (Centre for Substance Abuse, CESAR). Tobacco is the only legal drug that kills many of its users when used exactly as intended by manufacturers (WHO, 2015). Tobacco smoking is very harmful to pregnant women and to their babies whether active or as second-hand (passive). Tobacco smoking leads to stillbirth, low birth weight, congenital abnormalities and contributes significantly to respiratory tract infections in infants (Wahabi et al, 2013). Tobacco deaths resulting from tobacco consumption is expected to reach more than eight million by the year 2030, with most of the tobacco-related morbidity and mortality occurring disproportionately in low-and middle-income countries (WHO, 2013).

Till date, Nigeria has passed only two pieces of legislation aimed at controlling tobacco consumption among its citizens. These are the 1990 tobacco (smoking) control decree and the 2015 tobacco control act. The later, was finally signed into law by Nigeria’s outgone President, Goodluck Johnathan, hours to the end of his tenure on May 29, 2015 of which has not had its full implementation (Ebirim et al, 2016).

Students in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State are not out of the practice of tobacco consumption.

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