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CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF GENDER INEQUALITY

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

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  • Introduction

Despite constitutional provisions and discussions on regional and international human rights treaties and conventions, the rights of women and girls are widely violated and devalued in Nigeria and several African countries[1] .Underdeveloped countries, including Nigeria, are by no means a monopoly of gender inequality. Men earn more than women in essentially all societies. However, disparities in health, education and bargaining power within marriage tend to be higher in countries with low per capita GDP[2] .However, gender differences in each of these areas have a profound impact on economic opportunities for men and women, labor productivity of men and women, the performance and potential of their enterprises and the incentives Men and women as economic agents. These, in turn, affect the nature, pace and impact of economic growth and poverty reduction.

Although this is often overlooked, gender is an aspect of the social identity of men and women. Like cultural norms and expectations about the roles of women, there are also cultural norms and expectations of men as leaders, husbands, sons and lovers who shape their behavior and opportunities. Gender aspects of expectations can have costs and disadvantages for men (hopefully they will take up arms and defend the nation, for example).However, the general pattern of gender relations favors men in the distribution of resources, opportunities and power. The privileged position of men also gives them a disproportionate power in determining the values ​​that prevail[3] .

To date, the struggle for greater equality between women and men has been led by women. Recent developments include the formation of male networks for gender equality and the “white ribbon” campaigns launched by men in Canada and in other countries such as Nicaragua against domestic violence. These are promising signs because achieving gender equality will require the participation of both men and women[4] .

Development agencies are beginning to realize the importance of involving men in initiatives for gender equality. In some cases, this initiative has been motivated by resistance. Other initiatives pursue the more ambitious objective of engaging men in promoting equality. Certain Initiatives Related to Reproductive Health and the well-being of families and communities[5] . On the other hand, discriminatory social institutions lead to gender inequalities. These include informal sanctions, taboos, customs, traditions and codes of conduct and formal rules that govern behavior and determine the rights of individuals to women and men.

 

 

 

 

In Nigeria, femininity is reduced to a mere infidel and a second-class citizen; therefore, there is the general belief system that the best place for women is in the “kitchen”. This trend has led to an enormous misrepresentation of women from the family level to the circular society[6] . Nigerian society is of a patriarchal nature which is a major characteristic of a traditional society. It is a structure of a set of social relations with material basis that allows men to dominate women. Women are therefore discriminated against, in most cases, from acquiring formal education, ill-treated and perpetually kept as domestic servants; The average Nigerian woman is considered an object available for prostitution, forced marriage, street hawk, large-scale trafficking instrument and inadequacy in society. Thus, the alleged irregularity associated with the status of women in society simply reduced an average woman to a lower commodity[7] .

On the female perspective, it was revealed that women constitute 49% of the total population in Nigeria, according to the controversial previous census. As is the case in all capitalist societies, as a rule, women are marginalized and oppressed in Nigeria. In a capitalist society, a woman is doubly oppressed, first as a worker whose employer must maximize profits by exploiting her labor power and secondly as a woman in the patriarchal society[8] .It should be noted that the oppression of women is rooted in the class society; Therefore, it was with us before the advent of capitalism when it reached its peak. Patriarchy exploits the work of women; Capitalism exploits the work of male or female employees[9] .

In Nigeria as elsewhere, religion and tradition are instruments of female oppression. They constitute, among other things, the ideology of society, which is a superstructure on the socio-economic foundation of any class society. Many religious beliefs and traditions date from the feudal era. They were designed to justify and maintain private property. They are preserved until now because of the fact that feudalism has ended, private property remains, except that it has not changed character. Patriarchy is a by-product of class society. It has emerged with private property, as is the case with the State, in order to preserve the interest of the first beneficiaries of the new socio-economic arrangement, that is to say, men. Traditions and religion support the patriarchal society with private property and class society[10] .

The patriarchal society defines the parameters of the structurally unequal position of women in families and markets by approving gender differences in inheritance rights and legal adulthood, tacitly tolerating domestic and sexual violence, and sanctioning deferred wages for equal or comparable work. Tradition or culture and religion have dictated relations between men and women for centuries and have anchored male domination in the structure of social organization and institution at all levels of leadership. They justify the marginalization of women’s capitalism in education, the labor market, politics, business, family, domestic affairs and inheritances[11] .

Female oppression is a global phenomenon since capitalism or class society is universal, but in Nigeria, a neo-colonial country under the hindrances of imperialism and its multinational agents, the conditions of competition are best in the world among other Third World countries. For this reason, a gender analysis is required for all initiatives because it ensures that planning is based on facts and analysis rather than on assumptions. Gender-based analysis has been advocated for more than 20 years because of the potential for projects to fail due to a lack of information on basic cultural patterns such as the division of labor by gender in households and Rewards and incentives associated with the division of labor. Gender analysis is therefore a means of increasing the quality and effectiveness of initiatives and gender equality[12] .

A gender-based analysis should provide information and analysis on the families and communities that will be targeted or affected by an initiative – on activities, needs and priorities, both gender and their implications for the proposed initiative. It should identify local and national initiatives for gender equality – the efforts of governments and civil society to pursue these issues and how the initiative can complement these efforts. A gender-based analysis is the basis for planning an initiative that has realistic goals and activities related to gender equality. CIDA’s policy on gender equality identifies the basic elements of gender-based analysis. Many guides are available to help identify issues that should be addressed in different sectors or types of initiatives[13] .

 

 

 

 

 

1.1     Statement of the problem

New contemporary security problems encountered by Nigerians today are the use of women as kamiks and kidnappers in public places such as the markets and places of worship (mosque and churches) of the terrorist group (Boko haram) In the northern part of Nigeria as well as the Niger Delta Militant in the south-south part of Nigeria, armed robbery and political violence and instability, as is currently the case throughout the country. Several reasons have been behind these challenges. These include gender inequality, high poverty rates and illiteracy among Nigerian women because of certain religious and cultural beliefs.

[14] In an interview, Tinubu also observed that men have always been a very dominant character, women have difficulty knowing where they are placed, men expect women to even ask for their right, equality of Genders can be reached in Nigeria but the country has a long way to go. In the heat of the problem, there is a lack of a comprehensive strategy to promote gender equality and empower girls to address national security issues.

[1] Ikpe, E.B. The historical legacy of gender equality in Nigeria: In (S.O. Akinboye, Paradox of Gender Equality in Nigerian Politics, pp. 119-135, 2004

[2] See Duflo on the bidirectional relationship between women’s empowerment and development and Doepke et al. (2012) on the link between legal rights for women and development.

[3] See issue on “Men and Masculinity,” Gender and Development (Oxfam)  5 (2): 2009

[4] The UNDP website and men and gender equality provides useful links to various groups and to other resources.

See: <http://www.undp.org/gender/programmes/men/men_ge.html>

[5] On initiatives that deal with male resistance, see e.g. <http://www.popcouncil.org/publications/seeds/seeds16.html>.

On initiatives in reproductive health, see: <http://www.rho.org/html/menrh_overview_.htm#designing

[6] Aina, I. Olabisi . Women, culture and Society” in Amadu Sesay and Adetanwa Odebiyi (eds). Nigerian Women in Society and Development. Ibadan Dokun Publishing House, 6 (4): 20-64, 2009

[7] Ann J.T. Patriarchy”. Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy: Entries P-Z. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1197–1198, 2012

[8] Adeniran, A. A Non-Dependent Framework for Development”, Thisday, Wednesday, August 23, Pp. 45, 2006

[9] Delphy, C. and Leonard, D.  Familiar Exploitation: A New Analysis of Marriage in Contemporary Western Societies. Cambridge, Polity. Eade, D. (2008). Development in Practice, Oxfam, UK, 2009

[10] Ake, C. Democracy and Development in Africa, Washington D.C., The Brookings Institution, 2011

[11] Ann J.T. Patriarchy”. Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy: Entries P-Z. Taylor & Francis. pp. 1197–1198, 2012

[12] See Duflo on the bidirectional relationship between women’s empowerment and development and Doepke et al. (2012) on the link between legal rights for women and development.

[13] The UNDP website and men and gender equality provides useful links to various groups and to other resources.

See: <http://www.undp.org/gender/programmes/men/men_ge.html>

[14] Tinubu, U.  Interviewed on Gender Issues and Women Empowerment on 15 February 2016 at Abuja.

 

 

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